V2X (vehicle to everything) covers the communication and data exchange between a vehicle and the infrastructure (V2I: Vehicle to Infrastructure) or between a vehicle and other vehicles (V2V: Vehicle to Vehicle).
If vehicles are communicating with each other as well as with the traffic infrastructure, they can provide information that is outside the range of vision for classic sensors such as radar, LIDAR or cameras. This fundamental difference to traditional systems makes it possible to reliably detect certain dangerous situations, for example when an emergency vehicle enters the intersection, or when there is congestion behind a curve. Another use case is the exchange of information about adverse weather conditions such as black ice, fog, aquaplaning, etc. thus making traffic safer.
But not only safety reasons justify V2X. In addition, this direct communication can also optimise traffic flow and thus ultimately reduce CO2 emissions and increase user comfort.
In order to enable V2X communication, 802.11p based technology is ready for deployment. It is standardised and has been validated in many compliance and field tests.
Renesas Electronics and V2XRenesas Electronics has been an active player in V2X communication since the very beginning. Due to this, the R-Car W1R, a wireless communications SoC for the Japanese market (760 MHz), has already been manufactured in series since the first quarter of 2015 and more than 100,000 units have been delivered. The equivalent device for the US and EU markets (5.9GHz) is qualified and ready for production. As one of the largest semiconductor manufacturers for the automotive industry, Renesas has naturally ensured that automotive standards like AEC-Q100 or CMMI Level3 are fulfilled.
The company offers a complete V2X system, including radio, host, security and software. The qualified WAVE-SoCs W1R and W2R are available for the radio connection, which correspond to the regional standards. They are characterised by outstanding RF performance, achieving the requirements of the regional standards in Japan, Europe and US.
Host processorThe R-Car W2H is the host processor, which is equipped with security features. It provides high performance due to its two Cortex-A7 processor cores, clocked at a maximum of 1.0 GHz, and a computing power of 3800 DMIPS. Additionally, thanks to integrated security IPs, it also includes a high security level. For example, Renesas has integrated an ECDSA (Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm) accelerator into the R-Car W2H, which can perform up to 1000 verification calculations/s. To reach this security performance, an HSM (Hardware Security Module) is integrated into the R-Car SoCs, which results in several advantages compared to a discrete solution, where the host CPU and the secure element are two different components. The security approach of the R-Car W2H is based on the separation of application and security, where the application runs on the ARM cores and the security on the SH-4A. Thanks to the SH-4A the main CPU is relieved of the security functions and security firmware does not affect middleware and applications on the ARM. The processors are also equipped with an SDIO interface, which allows direct connection to the R-Car W2R.
Radio solutionsThe R-Car W1R (760MHz) is available for the Japanese market and the R-Car W2R (5.9GHz) for Europe and the USA – all chips are already qualified. The W2R is a single-chip solution that integrates the RF part, the baseband and the MAC - all in a small 10mm x 10mm FBGA package.
Renesas offers two reference designs: Pinta and Tortuga. Pinta is a small size radio module with optimised layout which integrates all RF components. Renesas worked together with RF component vendors to fulfil specific requirements, e.g.:
- ETSI Out of Band noise requirement -65dBm
- Increased Tx power from +20dBm to +24dBm
- Tx Diversity confirmed by field test
- Receiver sensitivity: -94 dBm
The second board – Tortuga – is a radio board, on which the Pinta-module is mounted. Developers can use the Tortuga board for RF performance evaluation as a stand-alone board, on which all necessary functions (e.g. power supply) are integrated.
Basic software such as drivers, board support package (Linux), security framework etc. is provided by Renesas Electronics. For the middleware software layers (GEOnetwork, facility, security) and QNX OS, developers can access Renesas’ unique partner ecosystem.
To shorten development time and time to market, developers can use the V2X starter kit. This kit combines the R-Car W1R/W2R and the R-Car W2H SoC, which is equipped with the optimal security IP for V2X.
Renesas global activities for V2X
Renesas is represented in Europe, the US and Japan, and thus also in various industrial organisations that promote the V2X communication in their respective regions and the corresponding standardisation. In Europe, for example, Renesas is member of the Car 2 Car Communication Consortium; in Japan it is a member of the Japanese Consortium. Renesas is also participating or has participated in various field tests in Europe and the US.
As a showcase, Renesas presented its self-developed ADAS demo vehicle equipped with radar, Lidar, camera and V2X (see Youtube video) at CES.